Bài tập Câu điều kiện (Nâng cao)

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Bài tập Câu điều kiện (Nâng cao)
CONDITIONAL SENTENCES
I. Structure
Function
If- clause
Main clause
1
Probability
Simple Present
Verb: V1/s/es/ don’t/ doesn’t 
Be: am/ is/ are (not) + .
Simple Future
Verb: will (not) + V1
Be: will (not) be + 
Truth
Simple Preset
Simple Present
Request
Simple Present
Imperative
(don’t) V1
2
Unreal present
Past Subjunctive
Verb: V2/ed / didn’t V1
Be: were/ weren’t .
Future in the past
Verb: would (not) V1
Be: would (not) be ..
3
Unreal past
Past Perfect Subjunctive
Verb: had (not) + V3/ed
Be: had (not) been 
Verb: would(n’t) have V3
Be: would not have been
Ex:
- If it (not rain) ________________, we will have a picnic.
- If you heat ice, it (melt) _____________.
- If she comes, please (let) ____________ me know.
- If I were in your shoes, I (not, do) _____________ that.
- If I (water) ___________ the plants, they wouldn’t have died.
*Note:
1. Adv of time
- Present: now, today, right now, at the moment, à Type 2
- Past: last, ago, yesterday, à Type 3
- Future: next week, tomorrow à Type 1
Ex:
- If you (be) ____________ busy tomorrow, can you let me know ?
- If she (study) ______________ hard yesterday, she (pass) _______________ the exam
2. Mix type:
- Usually mix between type 2 and 3
Ex:
- If she (eat) _______________ something last night, she (not, be) ________________ hungry now.
- If I (take) _______________ the train last night, I (be) ______________ here with you now.
- If it (rain) _______________ an hour ago, the streets (be) __________ wet now.
- If the students (know) _______________ that is not good for them, they (do) ________________ that yesterday.
- If she (finish) _____________ the job earlier, she (be) _____________ going to the party tonight.
3. Special types
If + S + should (not) + be/ V1 , S + will (not) + be/ V1 + 
à Unexpected things
Ex: If she should come, please tell me immediately so I can prepare something for her.
If + S + will + V1, S + will (not) + be + V1 + 
à Polite request (for type 1)
Ex: If you will just wait a moment, I will find someone to help you.
= Please wait a moment, I will find someone to help you.
If + S + should (not) / were to + V1, S + would + (not) be/ V1 + 
à Unsure things
Ex: If she were to see you here, she would very surprised.
If + S + would + V1, S + would (not) + be + V1 + 
à Polite request (for type 2)
Ex: If you would come this way, the doctor would see you now.
4. Continuous tense in conditional sentences
Ex: 
- If you are waiting for the bus, please join the line.
- If we were going by boat, we would feel more relaxed.
- If I hadn’t been wearing seatbelt at that moment, I would have been seriously injured.
à Emphasize the continuance
5. Alternative modal verb
- Instead of will/ would in main clause, we can use:
	+ must/ have to à obligation
	+ may/ might à probability
	+ can/ could à ability
Ex:
- If it rains, we are going to stay at home.
- If you were in Britain, you had to drive on the left side.
- If Mary jogs regularly, she may lose weight.
II. Alternative of If clause
- Unless = If  not 
Ex: Unless you study hard, you will fail the exam.
(= If you don’t study hard)
- Provided/ Providing that/ As soon as/ On condition (that): miễn là
Ex: You can use my car, provided that you drive carefully.
- Suppose/ Supposing that: giả sử là  (NOT with type 1)
Ex: Suppose the meeting is put off, what will we do?
- In case = in the event that: trong trường hợp
Ex: In case it rains, please bring along a raincoat.
- Even if: ngay cả khi
Ex: Even if we are poor, we will always help other people.
- But for = Without: nếu không có
 If it weren’t for = Were it not for
 If it hadn’t been for = Had it not been for + Nphrase, S + would V1
 But for	or: would have V3
 Without
Ex: But for your help, I couldn’t have passed the exam.
- or/ or else/ ortherwise
S + (don’t/ doesn’t) V1/s-es + or/ or else + S + will (not) + V1
S + (don’t/ doesn’t) V1/s-es . Otherwise, S + will (not) + V1
Ex: Hurry up or you will miss the train!
III. Inversion of If – clause
If + S + should V1 = Should + S + V1
Ex: - If he should come à ____________________________________
	- If they should do à _____________________________________
If + S + was/ were + O = Were + S + (not) + O
Ex:	- If he were not here now à ____________________________
	- If I were you à _____________________________________
If + S + were to + V1 = Were + S + to V1
Ex - If you weren’t lie to her à ________________________________
If + S + V2/ed +  = Did + S + (not) + V1
Ex: If she watered the plants à ________________________________
If + S + had V3/ed = Had + S + (not) + V3
Ex: If I had known you were ill à ______________________________
III. Transformation
- A so/ therefore/ that’s why B à If (A), M (B)
- A because B à If (B), M (A)
- Prepositions: and/ or/ or else à If 1
- Because/ So/ That’s why/ therefore à If 2 or 3 or mix (based on Adverb of time in each clause)
Ex:
- Peter gets bad marks because he doesn’t prepare his lessons well
If Peter ________________________________________________
- Mary doesn’t have enough money. She can’t buy a new car.
If Mary ________________________________________________
- Go right now or you’ll be late for the train.
If you________________________________________________
- He doesn’t apply for the job because he doesn’t have enough time
If he ________________________________________________
- Hurry up, or we will be late for the exam.
If we ________________________________________________
- I didn’t do the homework last night, so I am punished today.
If you ________________________________________________
- Because you speak English unnaturally, they do not understand you.
If you ________________________________________________
- “I couldn’t have made it without your help” means
 A. I couldn’t have made it if you helped me.
 B. I couldn’t have made it if you had helped me.
 C. I couldn’t have made it if you hadn’t helped me.
 D. I couldn’t have made it if you didn’t help me.
- She didn’t stop her car because she didn’t see the signal.
 A. If she saw the signal, she would stop her car.
 B. If she had seen the signal, she would stop her car.
 C. If she had seen the signal, she would have stopped her car.
 D. If she saw the signal, she would have stopped her car.
- His flight was delayed so he couldn’t be here on time.
 A. He would be here in time if his flight were not delayed.
 B. He would have been here in time if his flight hadn’t been delayed.
 C. He would be here in time if his flight hadn’t been delayed.
 D. He would have been here in time if his flight weren’t delayed.
EXERCISES
A. Put the verb in brackets into the correct form.
If the earth suddenly (stop) _____spinning we all (fly) _____ off it.
à _____________________________
If you (smoke) _____ in a non-smoking compartment the other passengers (object) _____ à _____________________________
(your parents / not / be) _____ proud if they could see you now?
à _____________________________
I’m broke, but I (have) _____ plenty of money now if I (not / spend) ______ so much yesterday. à _____________________________
If we (work) _____all right, we (finish) _____ in time; but we have no intention of doing it à _____________________________
If we (have) _____ a submarine now, we (use) _____ it to investigate the seabed. à _____________________________
Were he ten years younger, he (take) _____ part in the voyage around the world. à _____________________________
Should you come late, they (not let) _____ you in.
à _____________________________
He might get rid of his cough if he (not smoke) _____ so much
à _____________________________
If someone (give) _____ you a boat what you (do) _____ ?
à _____________________________
Water (freeze) _____ if the temperature falls below zero
à _____________________________
I (warn) _____ you if I had seen you last week.
à _____________________________
He always says hello if he (see) _____ you.
à _____________________________
What would you do if he (resign) _____ tomorrow?
à _____________________________
I wouldn’t have been so upset if Judy (write) _____ to me earlier.
à _____________________________
Shout if you (see) _____ anything unusually.
à _____________________________
The engine starts if you (turn) _____ this key à _______________
If he weren’t so bad-temperature, his wife (not leave) _____ him so soon after the marriage. à _____________________________
What (you / say) _________ if I offered you a job? 
à _____________________________
The children always (get) _________frightened if they watch horror films. à _____________________________
If I (take) _____ your advice yesterday, I (punish) _____ now.
à __________________________________
22. I think it stands still. If it (fall) ______, tell me immediately. à ______
B. Complete each of the following sentences so that it means the same as the sentence before i.t
She doesn’t live in London because she doesn’t know anyone there
She’d __________________________________________________
I can’t live in the country because I can’t find a job there
I’d __________________________________________________
I don’t have a spare ticket. I can’t take you to the concert
If I __________________________________________________
The schoolchildren sowed some seeds, but they forgot to water them so they didn’t grow.
If the children ____________________________________________
They don’t understand the problem. They won’t find a solution
If they __________________________________________________
He sits around too much. He isn’t fit.
If he __________________________________________________
Carol didn’t answer the phone because she was studying..
If Carol ________________________________________________
Rita is exhausted today because she didn’t get any sleep last night.
Had __________________________________________________
She’s very thin; perhaps that’s why she feels cold so much.
If she __________________________________________________
He never polishes his shoes, so he never looks smart
If he __________________________________________________
He can’t park near his office; that’s why he doesn’t come by car
If he __________________________________________________
My house is guarded by two big dogs. That’s the only reason it isn’t broken into every night
If my house _____________________________________________
The flats are not clearly numbered, so it is very difficult to find anyone.
If the flats _______________________________________________
I don’t know her e-mail address, so I can’t tell you
If I __________________________________________________
She works in the evening. She has no time to play with her children
If she __________________________________________________
16. Do the homework now. Otherwise, you will be punish.
If ______________________________________________________
17. They didn’t have enough money, so they didn’t buy the house.
Had ___________________________________________________
18. I advised you to take that job.
Were __________________________________________________
19. He wasn’t paying attention, so he didn’t see the tree.
Had ___________________________________________________
C. Choose the best answer among A, B, C or D to complete each sentence. 
1. I would have visited you before if there _____ quite a lot of people in your house.
 A. hadn't	B. hadn't been	C. wouldn't be	D. wasn't
2. If you had caught the bus, you _____ late for work.
 	A. wouldn't have been 	B. would have been 	 
C. wouldn’t be	D. would be
3. If I _____, I would express my feelings.
 A. were asked	B. would ask	 C. had been asked	D. asked
4. If _____ as I told her, she would have succeeded.
 A. she has done	B. she had done C. she does	D. she did
5. Will you be angry if I _____ your pocket dictionary?
 A. stole	B. have stolen	C. were to steal	D. steal
6. You made a mistake by telling her a lie. It _____ better if you _____ to her.
 A. would have been / hadn't lied	B. would be / didn't lie
 C. will be / don't lie	D. would be / hadn't lied
7. John would be taking a great risk if he _____ his money in that business.
 A. would invest	 B. invested	C. had invested 	D. invests
8. She wouldn't have given them all that money if we _____ her to.
 A. wouldn’t advise	 B. won't advise C. hadn't advised D. didn't advise
9. If the tree hadn't been so high, he _____ it up to take his kite down.
 A. could have climbed B. climb	 C. is climbing D. climbed
10. If the wall weren't so high, he _____ it up to take his ball down.
 A. climbed	 B. could climb	C. is climbing	 D. climb
11. If I _____ her phone number, I _____ her last night
 A. had known / could have phoned B. knew / would have phoned
 C. know / can phone	 D. knew / could phone
12. If he ______ the truth, the police wouldn’t arrest him.
 A. tells	B. told	 C. had told	D. would tell
13. If you press that button what _____?
 A. would happen	B. would have happened 
 C. will happen	D. happen
14. She says if she _____ that the traffic lights were red she _____.
 A. had realized / would stop	B. realized / could have stopped
 C. has realized / stopped	D. had realized / would have stopped
15. I am very thin. I think, if I _____ smoking, I might get fat.
 A. stop	B. had stopped	 C. will stop	D. stopped
16. If I _____ that yesterday, I _____ them.
A. had discovered / would inform B. had discovered / would have informed
C. had discovered / could inform	 	 D. discovered / can inform
17. If you _______ to the course regularly, they ________ a certificate last year.
 	A. go / gave 	 B. go / give	
C. had gone / would have given	D. went / would give
18. I think he is not at home. If he _____ in, he ______ the phone.
 A. was / answered	B. were / would answer
 C. were / would have answered D.had been / would have answered
19. If I ______ in London now, I could visit British Museum.
 A. were	B. had been	C. have been	D. would be
20. If Columbus _______ money from Queen Isabella, he _______ across the Atlantic. 
 A. do not receive / could not sail	
 B. had not received / might not have sailed
 C. did not receive / might not have sailed 	 
 D. would not receive / might not sail
21. If you didn't wear shabby clothes, you _______ more good-looking.
 A. will be	B. would be	C. would have been D. can be
22. If your hair _______	grey now, what ______ you ________?
 A. went / would / do	B. goes / would /do
 C. had gone / would/do	D. had gone / would have / done
23. If you ______ be someone, who______ you ______?
 A. could / would / have been 	B. could / would / be	
 C. can / will / be D. are able to / will / be
24. If I ________ an Angel, I would try to make happy all the children.
 A. am	B. have been	C. were	D. had been
25. John would be taking a great risk if he _____ his money in that business.
 A. would invest	B. invested	C. had invested	 D. invests
26. It ________ if nobody had reminded them.
A. would have be forgot 	B. would have been forgot 	 C. would have forget 	 D. would have been forget
27. The car ________ if somebody takes it there.
 A. will be repaired 	B. would be repaired 	 
 C. will been repaired	D. is repair 
28. You ______ to prison if you did that.
 A. would be send 	B. would have been sent 
 C. would be sent 	D. were sent
29. You would study Italian if it _____ here.
 A. was teaching 	B. were taught C. would be taught 	D. is taught
30. It _______ if nobody reminded them 
A. was forgotten B. would be forget C. would be forgot D. would forgot

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